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Metabolic syndrome: The gateway to diseases?

Globally, it is a leading cause of illness and mortality with a substantial impact on the quality of life for individuals affected.


National Institutes of Health stated that Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, and increased fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.


These risk factors are connected with skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is defined by impaired glucose transport into muscle cells, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels due to an excess quantity of glucose in the bloodstream.

In addition, this condition has been associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which may contribute to cell damage via oxidative stress processes.


According to a recent meta-analysis, between 20 and 30 percent of MBS patients develop chronic non-communicable disorders during their lifespan, compared with 5-10 percent of those without the syndrome.


Globally, metabolic syndrome is a leading cause of illness and mortality with a substantial socioeconomic cost. Over the past decade, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in India has increased rapidly, affecting more than 30 percent of the population older than 25.


Metabolic Syndrome is responsible for around 5-10% of all deaths in the general population, equating to one million deaths yearly throughout all world regions.


The economic burden of medical care expenditures associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) linked to metabolic syndrome was estimated to be $324 billion in 2008 US dollars using WHO methodology and prevalence statistics from 2009 published by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).


The majority of metabolic syndrome MS instances are avoidable through modifiable lifestyle changes, such as diet (Mouth) and exercise (Muscle). Diet is simply a predominantly plant-based dietary pattern with limited meat and processed foods intake. Exercise is any Physical activity suited to the unique individual at a moderate pace or intensity for 150-300 minutes per week.


A study was done to determine the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment for MS patients. Weight, lipid profile, and quality of life were used as the end measures (QOL).


This prospective, single-blind study included 40 patients with MS (aged 18 or older) randomly assigned to one of two groups: the control group received conventional treatment without any lifestyle modifications. In contrast, the experimental group received traditional treatment plus dietary management and an exercise training program for 12 weeks.


A t-test was performed to compare baseline and follow-up mean values between groups. Within each group, a paired-samples test was utilized to compare baseline data to 12-week follow-up data.


Results indicated:

At baseline, both groups' mean age, BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), and triglyceride levels were considerably more significant than optimal.

In the experimental group, the mean values of all parameters reduced dramatically after 12 weeks of intervention diet + exercise training, except for HDL cholesterol level, which remained stable.

In the control group, after 12 weeks of dieting alone, only systolic blood pressure improved significantly, but not other measures such as BMI, waist circumference, etc.;


Recommendations


Mouth: Choose a healthy diet that delivers the appropriate calories, nutrients, and beverages to maintain a healthy weight.


Additionally, you should avoid foods that are heavy in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars, as these contribute to an unhealthy diet.


Muscle: Perform at least 30 minutes of aerobic physical activity on most days of the week. Also, use weight training twice per week to strengthen your muscles so that they can utilize energy more efficiently.


Dietary adjustments can include a low-fat diet, a low-glycemic diet, or a Mediterranean diet, and should be adjusted to the unique needs and preferences of the patient.


Conclusion


The good news is that metabolic syndrome can be reversed through a variety of means.

The first step is to visit a doctor and undergo testing for the ailment, which includes evaluating your blood pressure, blood sugar levels, blood fat levels (triglycerides), and body weight.


Then, they will assist you in developing a plan for long-term management. If necessary, they may prescribe medications or recommend lifestyle modifications, such as dietary changes or exercise routines, that are targeted to patients with metabolic syndrome.

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